Monday, June 8, 2009

Hulstijn (2003) Incidental and Intentional Learning

So this is one of the papers I thought I needed to read as follow up to Laufer & Hulstijn (2001) as  described in an earlier blog post.   My colleague had been recommending that I read a paper by Hulstijn that apparently addressed a construct of 'rehearsal' that could be applied to intentional learning.  Unfortunately I grabbed the wrong book chapter.  I should have been reading Hulstijn's (2001) paper entitled: "Intentional and Incidental Second Language Vocabulary Learning: A Reappraisal of Elaboration, Rehearsal and Automaticity", a book chapter in Cognition and Second Language Instruction; but I accidentally grabbed Hulstijn's (2003) "Incidental and Intentional Learning", a book chapter in the Handbook of Second Language Acquisition.  Anyway, I'll read the other paper next week, but since I read all of Hulstijn's 2003 paper before realizing my mistake, here are my notes on that. Actually I did notice my mistake earlier, but I was in a park with the paper printed out, and I couldn't easily grab all of the 2001 paper on my iPhone, so I finished reading the paper copy I had printed out.

In this paper Hulstijn undertakes a detailed examination of the differences between incidental and intentional learning from popular, psychological and second language acquisition perspectives.  The popular perspective is that of study versus immersion, where incidental learning corresponds to the idea of immersing oneself in a language by extensive communication with native speakers and reading/writing of native texts; and intentional learning corresponds to attending language classes.  These popular perspectives only partially reflect the way in which the terms are used academically.  After reviewing the development of 20th century psychology, Hulstijn says that in terms of cognitive psychology that:
intentional and incidental learning refer, strictly speaking, only to the presence or absence of an announcement to participants in an experiment as to whether they will be tested afterwards
I had been surprised when Folse (2006) had classified his study as incidental, when it had seemed to me that asking subjects to perform cloze tests involving a limited set of words, or construct sentences with those words, was tantamount to asking those subjects to learn those words.  To be fair to Folse, his study did involve a number of distractor tasks, but I was still surprised by the suggestion that simply not mentioning in advance that there would be a vocabulary test would make the study one of incidental learning.  I guess the common incidental learning study task is reading comprehension, where the task focus is much more clearly on something other than vocabulary acquisition.  I guess Folse's intention was to avoid having subjects focus on acquiring vocabulary so that they would not attempt to memorise the words through other means, such as writing down lists of words to look at independently, or repeatedly going over the words in their heads.  Of course Folse doesn't say this explicitly, but it makes me think of Eyssenck's (1982) assumption that active intention to learn does not tend to affect learning outcomes (backed up by experimental results of Hyde & Jenkins, 1973).  Although this leaves me confused as to the point of the incidental/intentional learning distinction.

Fortunately Hulstijn goes on to cite a number of more detailed definitions from Schmidt (1994a) as characterising the Second Language Acquisition perspective on incidental learning.  The three definitions in order of increasing specificity are:
  1. learning without the intent to learn
  2. learning of one thing while the learner's primary objective is to do something else 
  3. learning of formal features while an individual is focused on semantic features
Going on to consider intentional learning from an SLA perspective Hulstijn refers to the cognitive interpretation of the use of rehearsal and memorizing techniques employed by learners when they have explicit intention of learning and retaining lexical information (Schmitt, 1997).  He does not re-iterate the suggestion from Laufer and Hulstijn (2001) that the benefit of incidental over intentional learning experiments is that the experimenter can be more certain of the strategies being employed by the learner.  The distinctions between the incidental/intentional and explicit/implicit dichotomies are re-iterated and Hulstijn summarizes the difference between explicit and intentional learning as follows:
Whereas explicit learning involves awareness at the point of learning (e.g., by trying to understand what the function of a certain language form is), intentional learning involves a deliberate attempt to commit new information to memory (e.g., by applying rehearsal and/or mnemonic techniques)
Hulstijn suggests that there is a confusion over the what and how of incidental and intentional learning; that it is almost impossible to conceive of the acquisition of grammatical features through intentional learning.  This seems a little odd for me, but then grammar is not my specialty.  Still I can remember being explicitly instructed on points of Japanese grammar and then trying to employ them.  In some ways it seems to me that one can intentionally focus on learning grammar and lexis, but that employing both effectively requires achieving a level of automaticity where the process through which they are employed is not subject to introspection.

The involvement load constuct of Laufer & Hulstijn (2001) is only mentioned briefly in the context of incidental learning of novel words, and there is no mention of its possible relation to intentional learning.  My feeling is that my colleague Yi-Jiun Shiung's intuition that the constructs of involvement load can be applied to intentional learning are correct; although I guess I start to see that the incidental/intentional dichotomy is being used to distinguish task type.  If you are constructing a sentence or solving a cloze test then you are, a priori, not repeating a particular word over and over in your head, or constructing a mnemonic to help you remember an L1-L2 mapping.  Thus for the purposes of our meta-analysis it seems that classification in terms of task type is perhaps more important than the incidental/intentional dimension.

The constructs that Hulstijn refers to in his section on intentional learning studes are monolingual vs bilingual, context vs. no context, rehearsal, feedback, and mnemonics.  Interestingly he also says that:
It appears that a number of researchers have investigated various presentation and rehearsal regimes (with and without feedback) in computer-aided instruction, but such studies are almost never published in international journals.
I think we have managed to find a few, although many number of them are post-2003.  Of greater significance are Hulstijn's summaries of the findings of various studies including the indication that learning rates under genuine incidental learning conditions are low compared to intentional learning conditions.  Although of course it is almost impossible to control for 'time on task'. Other studies suggest bilingual presentation outperforms monolingual presentation (although I assume this depends on learner level and the test type), that context is a difficult construct to pin down, and mnemonics should only be resorted to when other approaches have failed.

There's a study by Griffin & Harley (1996) that arguably should be in our meta-analysis, as well as a few others we should check on, particularly in the latter section on intentional learning.  Of course this raises the question about whether we try to broaden the scope of our meta-analysis, or whether we compromise it by including other studies that we discover as a result of reading the core set of initial papers that we found.

My References

Folse, K. S. (2006). The Effect of Type of Written Exercise on L2 Vocabulary Retention. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 273-293.

Hulstijn's References
Atkins, P. W. B. and Baddeley, A. D. 1998 Working memory and distributed vocabulary learning (Cited by 36). Applied Psycholinguistics, (19), 537 52.
Avila, E. and Sadoski, M. 1996 Exploring new applications of the keyword method to acquire English vocabulary (Cited by 39). Language Learning, (46), 379 95.
Baddeley, A. 1997 Human Memory Theory and Practice (Cited by 2155). Revised edition. Hove Psychology Press.
Bates, E. and Goodman, J. C. 1997 On the inseparability of grammar and the lexicon evidence from acquisition, aphasia and real-time processing (Cited by 326). Language and Cognitive Processes, (12), 507 84.
Bransford, J. D., Franks, J. J., Morris, C. D., and Stein, B. S. 1979 Some general constraints on learning and memory research (Cited by 119). In L. S. Cermak and F. I. M. Craik (eds), Levels of Processing in Human Memory. Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 331 54.
Cho, K.-S. and Krashen, S. D. 1994 Acquisition of vocabulary from the Sweet Valley Kids Series adult ESL acquisition (Cited by 91). Journal of Reading, (37), 662 7.
Coady, J. 1997 L2 vocabulary acquisition a synthesis of the research (Cited by 79). In J. Coady and T. Huckin (eds), Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 273 90.
Coady, J. and Huckin, T., (eds) 1997 Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
Cobb, T. 1997 Is there any measurable learning from hands-on concordancing System, (Cited by 38) (25), 301 15.
Cobb, T. and Horst, M. 2001 Reading academic English carrying learners across the lexical threshold (Cited by 17). In J. Flowerdew and M. Peacock (eds), The English for Academic Purposes Curriculum. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 315 29.
Cook, V. 1993 Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (Cited by 325). London Macmillan.
Cohen, A. D. 1987 The use of verbal and imagery mnemonics in second-language vocabulary learning (Cited by 54). Studies in Second Language Learning, (9), 43 61.
Craik, F. I. M. and Lockhart, R. S. 1972 Levels of processing a framework for memory research (Cited by 3446). Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, (11), 671 84.
Craik, F. I. M. and Tulving, E. 1975 Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory (Cited by 1346). Journal of Experimental Psychology General, (104), 268 94.
Crothers, E. and Suppes, P. 1967 Experiments in Second-Language Learning (Cited by 56). New York Academic Press.
Doughty, C. 1991 Second language acquisition does make a difference evidence from an empirical study of SL relativization (Cited by 135). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (13), 431 69.
Dupuy, B. and Krashen, S. D. 1993 Incidental vocabulary acquisition in French as a foreign language (Cited by 55). Applied Language Learning, (4), 55 63.
ďYdewalle, G. and Pavakanun, U. 1995 Acquisition of a second/foreign language by viewing a television program. In P. Winterhoff-Spurk (ed.), Psychology of Media in Europe The State of the Art - Perspectives for the Future. Opladen Westdeutscher Verlag, 51 64.
Eagle, M. 1967 The effect of learning strategies upon free recall American Journal of Psychology, (Cited by 218) (80), 421 5.
Eckman, F., Bell, L., and Nelson, D. 1988 On the generalization of relative clause instruction in the acquisition of English as a second language (Cited by 161). Applied Linguistics, (9), 1 20.
Ellis, N. 1994 Implicit and explicit language learning (Cited by 52) - an overview. In N. Ellis (ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. London Academic Press, 1 31.
Ellis, N. and Beaton, A. 1993 Psycholinguistic determinants of foreign language vocabulary learning (Cited by 87). Language Learning, (43), 559 617.
Ellis, R. 1994 The Study of Second Language Acquisition (Cited by 2844). Oxford Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. 1995 Modified oral input and the acquisition of word meanings (Cited by 82). Applied Linguistics, (16), 409 41.
Ellis, R. and Heimbach, R. 1997 Bugs and birds children's acquisition of second language vocabulary through interaction (Cited by 9). System, (25), 247 59.
Ellis, R., Tanaka, Y., and Yamazaki, A. 1994 Classroom interaction, comprehension, and the acquisition of L2 word meanings (Cited by 136). Language Learning, (44), 449 91.
Eysenck, M. W. 1982 Incidental learning and orienting tasks (Cited by 26). In C. R. Puff (ed.), Handbook of Research Methods in Human Memory and Cognition. New York Academic Press, 197 228.
Feldman, A. and Healy, A. F. 1998 Effect of first language phonological configuration on lexical acquisition in a second language (Cited by 9). In A. F. Healy and L. E. Bourne, Jr (eds), Foreign Language Learning Psycholinguistic Studies on Training and Retention. Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 57 76.
Fischer, U. 1994 Using words from context and dictionaries an experimental comparison (Cited by 0). Applied Psycholinguistics, (15), 551 74.
Gagné, R. M. 1965 The Conditions of Learning. New York Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Gass, S. 1982 From theory to practice (Cited by 70). In M. Hines and W. Rutherford (eds), On TESOL' 81. Washington, DC Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, 129 39.
Gass, S. 1999 Discussion incidental vocabulary learning (Cited by 39). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (21), 319 33.
Gass, S. M. and Selinker, L. 1994 Second Language Acquisition An Introductory Course (Cited by 664). Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gibson, J. J. 1941 A critical review of the concept of set in contemporary experimental psychology (Cited by 115). Psychological Bulletin, (38), 781 817.
Grace, C. A. 1998 Retention of word meanings inferred from context and sentence-level translations implications for the design of beginning-level CALL software Modern Language Journal, (Cited by 54) (82), 533 44.
Griffin, G. and Harley, T. A. 1996 List learning of second language vocabulary Applied Psycholinguistics, (Cited by 45) (17), 443 60.
Holley, F. M. 1973 A study of vocabulary learning in context the effect of new-word density in German reading materials (Cited by 16). Foreign Language Annals, (6), 339 47.
Horst, M., Cobb, T., and Meara, P. 1998 Beyond A Clockwork Orange acquiring second language vocabulary through reading (Cited by 101). Reading in a Foreign Language, (11), 207 23.
Hulstijn, J. 1989 Implicit and incidental second language learning experiments in the processing of natural and partly artificial input (Cited by 43). In H. W. Dechert (ed.), Interlingual Processes. Tübingen Narr, 49 73.
Hulstijn, J. H. 1992 Retention of inferred and given word meanings experiments in incidental vocabulary learning (Cited by 151). In P. J. Arnaud and H. Béjoint (eds), Vocabulary and Applied Linguistics. London Macmillan, 113 25.
Hulstijn, J. H. 1997a Mnemonic methods in foreign-language vocabulary learning theoretical considerations and pedagogical implications (Cited by 0). In J. Coady and T. Huckin (eds), Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition A Rationale for Pedagogy. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 203 24.
Hulstijn, J. H. 1997b Second-language acquisition research in the laboratory possibilities and limitations (Cited by 0). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (19), 131 43.
Hulstijn, J. H. 2001 Intentional and incidental second-language vocabulary learning a reappraisal of elaboration, rehearsal and automaticity (Cited by 127). In P. Robinson (ed.), Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 258 86.
Hulstijn, J. H. 2002 Towards a unified account of the representation, processing and acquisition of second language knowledge (Cited by 56). Second Language Research, (18), 193 223.
Hulstijn, J. H. and Trompetter, P. 1998 Incidental learning of second language vocabulary in computer-assisted reading and writing tasks (Cited by 15). In D. Albrechtsen, B. Henriksen, I. M. Mees, E. Poulsen (eds), Perspectives on Foreign and Second Language Pedagogy. Odense Odense University Press, 191 200.
Hulstijn, J. H., Hollander, M., and Greidanus, T. 1996 Incidental vocabulary learning by advanced foreign language students the influence of marginal glosses, dictionary use, and reoccurrence of unknown words (Cited by 178). Modern Language Journal, (80), 327 39.
Hyde, T. S. and Jenkins, J. J. 1973 Recall for words as a function of semantic, graphic, and syntactic orienting tasks (Cited by 154). Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, (12), 471 80.
Ingram, E. 1975 Psychology and language learning (Cited by 18). In J. P. B. Allen and. S. P. Corder (eds), Papers in Applied Linguistics The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics. Vol. 2. London Oxford University Press, 218 90.
Knight, S. 1994 Dictionary the tool of last resort in foreign language reading (Cited by 178)? A new perspective. Modern Language Journal, (78), 285 99.
Kost, C. R., Foss, P., and Lenzini, J. L., Jr 1999 Textual and pictorial glosses effectiveness on incidental vocabulary growth when reading in a foreign language (Cited by 3). Foreign Language Annals, (32), 89 113.
Krashen, S. 1989 We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading additional evidence for the input hypothesis (Cited by 319). Modern Language Journal, (73), 440 64.
Kroll, J. F. and De Groot, A. M. B. 1997 Lexical and conceptual memory in the bilingual mapping form to meaning in two languages (Cited by 172). In A. M. B. De Groot and J. F. Kroll (eds), Tutorials in Bilingualism. Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 169 99.
Kroll, J. F., Michael, E., and Sankaranarayanan, A. 1998 A model of bilingual representation and its implications for second language acquisition (Cited by 27). In A. F. Healy and L. E. Bourne, Jr (eds), Foreign Language Learning Psycholinguistic Studies on Training and Retention. Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 365 95.
Larsen-Freeman, D. and Long, M. H. 1991 An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. Harlow Longman.
Laufer, B. and Hill, M. 2000 What lexical information do L2 learners select in a CALL dictionary and how does it affect word retention Language Learning and Technology, (Cited by 21) (3), 58 76.
Laufer, B. and Hulstijn, J. 2001 Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language the construct of Task-Induced Involvement (Cited by 150). Applied Linguistics, (22), 1 26.
Lawson, M. J. and Hogben, D. 1996 The vocabulary-learning strategies of foreign-language students (Cited by 108). Language Learning, (46), 101 35.
Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. 1993 How Languages are Learned (Cited by 879). Oxford Oxford University Press.
Loschky, L. 1994 Comprehensible input and second language acquisition (Cited by 107). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (16), 303 23.
Lotto, L. and De Groot, A. M. B. 1998 Effects of learning method and word type on acquiring vocabulary in an unfamiliar language (Cited by 42). Language Learning, (48), 31 69.
McLaughlin, B. 1965 Intentional” and “incidental” learning in human subjects the role of instructions to learn and motivation. Psychological Bulletin, (63), 359 76.
McLaughlin, B. 1987 Theories of Second-Language Learning (Cited by 627). London Arnold.
McLaughlin, B. and Heredia, R. 1996 Information-processing approaches to research on second language acquisition and use (Cited by 46). In W. C. Ritchie and T. K. Bhatia (eds), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. San Diego Academic Press, 213 28.
Mitchell, R. and Myles, F. 1998 Second Language Learning Theories (Cited by 411). London Arnold.
Mondria, J.-A. and Wit-de Boer, M. 1991 The effects of contextual richness on the guessability and the retention of words in a foreign language (Cited by 74). Applied Linguistics, (12), 249 67.
Morris, C. D., Bransford, J. D., and Franks, J. J. 1977 Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing (Cited by 710). Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, (16), 519 33.
Nagy, W. 1997 On the role of context in first- and second-language vocabulary learning (Cited by 116). In N. Schmitt and M. McCarthy (eds), Vocabulary Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 64 83.
Nagy, W. E. and Anderson, R. C. 1984 How many words are there in printed school English Reading Research Quarterly, (Cited by 67) (19), 304 30.
Nagy, W. E. and Herman, P. A. 1987 Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge Implications for acquisition and instruction (Cited by 249). In M. G. McKeown and M. Curtis (eds), The Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 19 35.
Nagy, W. E., Herman, P. A., and Anderson, R. A. 1985 Learning words from context Reading Research Quarterly, (Cited by 221) (20), 233 53.
Nation, I. S. P. 1982 Beginning to learn foreign vocabulary a review of the research (Cited by 96). RELC Journal, (13), 14 36.
Nation, P. 2001 Learning Vocabulary in Another Language (Cited by 807). Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
Oskarsson, M. 1975 On the role of the mother tongue in learning FL vocabulary an empirical investigation (Cited by 1). ITL, (27), 19 32.
Papagno, C., Valentine, T., and Baddeley, A. 1991 Phonological short-term memory and foreign-language vocabulary learning (Cited by 140). Journal of Memory and Language, (30), 331 47.
Paradis, M. 1994 Neurolinguistic aspects of implicit and explicit memory implications for bilingualism and SLA (Cited by 175). In N. Ellis (ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. London Academic Press, 393 419.
Pitts, M., White, H., and Krashen, S. 1989 Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading a replication of the Clockwork Orange study using second language acquirers (Cited by 65). Reading in a Second Language, (5), 271 5.
Postman, L. 1964 Short-term memory and incidental learning (Cited by 105). In A. W. Melton (ed.), Categories of Human Learning. New York Academic Press, 145 201.
Postman, L. and Senders, V. L. 1946 Incidental learning and generality of set Journal of Experimental Psychology, (Cited by 2793) (36), 153 65.
Pouwels, J. B. 1992 The effectiveness of vocabulary visual aids for auditory and visual foreign language students (Cited by 7). Foreign Language Annals, (25), 391 401.
Prince, P. 1996 Second language vocabulary learning the role of context versus translations as a function of proficiency Modern Language Journal, (Cited by 29) (80), 478 93.
Qian, D. D. 1996 ESL vocabulary acquisition contextualization and decontextualization (Cited by 34). Canadian Modern Language Review, (53), 120 42.
Ritchie, W. C. and Bhatia, T. K., (eds) 1996 Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. San Diego Academic Press.
Robinson, P. 1996a Consciousness, Rules, and Instructed Second Language Acquisition (Cited by 0). New York Peter Lang.
Robinson, P. 1996b Learning simple and complex second language rules under implicit, incidental, rule-search, and instructed conditions (Cited by 95). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (18), 27 67.
Robinson, P. 1997 Generalizability and automaticity of second language learning under implicit, incidental, enhanced, and instructed conditions (Cited by 95). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (19), 223 47.
Rodríguez, M. and Sadoski, M. 2000 Effects of rote, context, keyword, and context/keyword methods of retention of vocabulary in EFL classrooms. Language Learning, (50), 385 412.
Rott, S. 1999 The effect of exposure frequency on intermediate language learners' incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention through reading (Cited by 77). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (21), 589 619.
Royer, J. M. 1973 Memory effects for test-like events during acquisition of foreign language vocabulary (Cited by 10). Psychological Reports, (32), 195 8.
Saragi, T., Nation, I. S. P., and Meister, G. F. 1978 Vocabulary learning and reading (Cited by 98). System, (6), 72 8.
Schmidt, R. 1994a Deconstructing consciousness in search of useful definitions for applied linguistics (Cited by 0). AILA Review, (11), 11 26.
Schmidt, R. 1994b Implicit learning and the cognitive unconscious of artificial grammars and SLA (Cited by 56). In N. Ellis (ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. London Academic Press, 165 209.
Schmidt, R. W. 2001 Attention. In. P. Robinson (ed.), Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 3 32.
Schmitt, N. 1997 Vocabulary learning strategies (Cited by 198). In N. Schmitt and M. McCarthy (eds), Vocabulary Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 199 227.
Schmitt, N. and McCarthy, M., (eds) 1997 Vocabulary Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 199 227.
Schneider, V. I., Healy, A. F., and Bourne, L. F., Jr 1998 Contextual interference effects in foreign language vocabulary acquisition and retention (Cited by 31). In A. F. Healy and L. E. Bourne, Jr (eds), Foreign Language Learning Psycholinguistic Studies on Training and Retention. Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 77 90.
Segalowitz, N. 2000 Automaticity and attentional skill in fluent performance (Cited by 49). In H. Riggenbach (ed.), Perspectives on Fluency. Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press, 200 19.
Seibert, L. C. 1930 An experiment on the relative efficiency of studying French vocabulary in associated pairs versus studying French vocabulary in context Journal of Educational Psychology, (Cited by 9) (21), 297 314.
Service, E. and Craik, F. 1993 Differences between young and older adults in learning a foreign vocabulary (Cited by 75). Journal of Memory and Language, (32), 608 23.
Sharwood Smith, M. 1994 Second Language Learning Theoretical Foundations. Harlow Longman.
Shu, H., Anderson, R. C, and Zhang, H. 1995 Incidental learning of word meanings while reading a Chinese and American cross-cultural study (Cited by 72). Reading Research Quarterly, (30), 76 95.
Singleton, D. 1999 Exploring the Second Language Lexicon (Cited by 0). Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
Sokomen, A. J. 1997 Current trends in teaching second language vocabulary (Cited by 0). In N. Schmitt and M. McCarthy (eds), Vocabulary Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 237 57.
Spolsky, S. 1989 Conditions for Second Language Learning (Cited by 472). Oxford Oxford University Press.
Swanborn, M. S. L. and De Glopper, K. 1999 Incidental word learning while reading a meta-analysis (Cited by 92). Review of Educational Research, (69), 261 85.
Tinkham, T. 1993 The effect of semantic clustering on the learning of second language vocabulary (Cited by 45). System, (21), 371 80.
Towell, R. and Hawkins, R. 1994 Approaches to Second Language Acquisition (Cited by 200). Clevedon Multilingual Matters.
Tulving, E. 1979 Relation between encoding specificity and levels of processing (Cited by 113). In L. S. Cermak and F. I. M. Craik (eds), Levels of Processing in Human Memory. Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 405 28.
Underwood, B. J. and Schulz, R. W. 1960 Meaningfulness and Verbal Learning (Cited by 433). Philadelphia Lippincott.
Van de Poel, M. and ďYdewalle, G. 2001 Incidental foreign-language acquisition by children watching subtitled television programs. In Y. Gambier and H. Gottlieb (eds), (Multi)media Translation Concepts, Practices, and Research. Amsterdam John Benjamins, 259 73.
Van Els, T., Bongaerts, T., Extra, G., Van Os, C., and Janssen-van Dieten, (Cited by 8) A.-M. 1984 Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching of Foreign Languages. London Arnold.
Wang, A. Y. and Thomas, M. H. 1995 Effect of keywords on long-term retention help or hindrance Journal of Educational Psychology, (Cited by 25) (87), 468 75.
Wang, A. Y., Thomas, M. H., and Ouellette, J. A. 1992 Keyword mnemonic and retention of second-language vocabulary words (Cited by 44). Journal of Educational Psychology, (84), 520 8.
Waring, R. 1998 The negative effects of learning words in semantic sets a replication (Cited by 35). System, (25), 261 74.
Watanabe, Y. 1997 Input, intake, and retention effects of increased processing on incidental learning of foreign language vocabulary (Cited by 77). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (19), 287 307.
Wesche, M. and Paribakht, T. S., (eds) 1999 Incidental L2 vocabulary acquisition theory, current research, and instructional implications. Thematic issue of Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (21) (2).
Wode, H. 1999 Incidental vocabulary acquisition in the foreign language classroom (Cited by 31). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (21), 243 58.
Yang, L. 1997 Tracking the acquisition of L2 vocabulary the Keki language experiment (Cited by 12). In J. Coady and T. Huckin (eds), Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 125 56.

1 comment:

Philistine said...

Hi Sam,

Interesting discussion of incidental vs. intentional learning.

When I was defending my dissertation a few weeks ago, a couple of committee members objected to my usage of "incidental."

I was using the cog psych definition for my study, but I'm going to the library to pick up a copy of Hulstijn 2003 and Paradis' chapter to check out what they have to say about it.

Something about the SLA that bothers me, however, is how many researchers seem compelled to redefine terms (in proprietary ways) that are already used in other fields. Baddeley defines incidental learning as learning that takes place when "subjects are not told that their memory would be tested."